The MAPK signaling cascade is:mitogen → MAPKK kinase (MAPKKK) → MAPK kinase (MAPKK) → MAP kinase (MAPK) → signaling
All eukaryotic cells possess multiple MAPK pathways [K], which coordinately regulate diverse cellular activities running the gamut from gene expression, mitosis, and metabolic regulation to motility, survival and apoptosis, and cellular differentiation.
To date, five distinct groups of MAPKs have been characterized in mammals: extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun amino-terminal kinases 1, 2, and 3 (JNKs, or SAPK, stress-activated protein kinases), p38 isoforms α, β, γ, and δ, ERKs 3 and 4, and ERK5 (reviewed in references 25 and 103).[s-fft]
Other MAP kinases include: microtubule associated protein-2 kinase (MAP-2 kinase), myelin basic protein kinase (MBP kinase), ribosomal S6 protein kinase (RSK-kinase) and EGF receptor threonine kinase (ERT kinase). MAP kinases include extracellular-signal regulated kinases (ERKs), with activators that include mitogens: Ras [fft], polypeptide growth factors PDGF, CSF-1, IGF-1, EGF, insulin, and PMA.
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