Enzymes, proteins, riboproteins and signaling pathways.

'signaling' enzymes

Metabotropic cell-surface receptors employ receptor-associated 'signaling' enzymes in the first stage of signal transduction and/or within resulting signaling cascades.

G protein linked receptors (GPLRs, GPCRs, 7TM) comprise the most numerous family of metabotropic signaling receptors, so the GPCRs are the largest protein family known.

Protein kinases are often anchored to a scaffold protein that either holds the kinase in a latent state close to its activating receptor, or facilitates the flow of information from one kinase to the next kinase in a signaling cascade.

● Histidine-kinase-associated receptors activate two-component signaling pathways in which the receptor receives a signal and transmits it, via phosphorelay, to a partner response regulator protein. In the phosphorelay, the histidine kinase acts as an autokinase by phosphorylating its own histidine residue before immediately transfering the phosphate to a second intracellular signaling protein in the receiver domain.

Receptor tyrosine kinases phosphorylate specific tyrosines on intracellular signaling proteins.

Protein tyrosine-kinase-associated receptors associate with specific intracellular proteins that possess tyrosine kinase activity.

Receptor-like tyrosine phosphatases remove the phosphate groups from tyrosine residues of specific intracellular signaling proteins.

Receptor serine/threonine kinases phosphorylate specific serine or threonine residues on associated latent gene regulatory proteins.

. . . catalyzing since 10/06/06
Search WWW Search enzymatics.blogspot.com Search signaling-receptor.blogspot.com Search chemistryolife.blogspot.com Search krebbing.blogspot.com Search cellular-immunity.blogspot.com Search biopoiesis.blogspot.com Search phototroph.blogspot.com Search endosymbionts.blogspot.com